Northern blot

RNA processing and northern blot technique problem
Student problem on RNA processing and northern blot technique. A. Below is a representation of a northern blot (Nordstrom et al., 1979). Northern blots are used to detect the presence of specific mRNA molecules. To do a northern blot, RNA is loaded into the wells of a gel, and separated according to size by electrophoresis. ... Field Labs.
21 November
Northern Blots
Auble Lab. Northern Blots. ... Add 5 µl stop buffer Purify labeled DNA using Amersham Probe Quant G-50 Micro Column (#27-5335-01) exactly as described by the manufacturer. Boil probe, cool on ice, then add 5-25 ng to prehyb. Incubate blot at 42 C overnight in roller bottle. Auble Lab.
Blotting Methods: Northern, Southern and Western Blots ….... ... Electrophoretic Transfer of Nucleic Acid Fragments from an Agarose. Gel to a Nylon Membrane Using the TE Might SmallTM Transphor …..….… BioradTM Mini Trans-Blot Electrophoretic Transfer Cell. ….… Section 3. Skills and Analytical Tools. Tools 4. Practical Lab Technique.
Western Blotting. Lab. 7. Introduction. Blotting is a technique by which a macromolecule such as DNA, RNA, or protein is resolved in a gel matrix, transferred to a solid support, and detected with a specific probe. These powerful techniques allow us to identify and characterize specific molecules in a complex mixture of related molecules. ... Southern blotting (DNA). Northern blotting (RNA). and Western blotting (for protein).
Northern Blots - Buratowski Lab wiki
1 PURPOSE OF METHOD AND ITS SCOPE. Electrophoresis of RNA through a denaturing agarose gel and blotting onto a nylon membrane. 2 EQUIPMENT NEEDED. Microwave. Fume Hood. Equipment for agarose gel electrophoresis.
6 March
Dot Blot Laboratory Protocol
The dot blot is a technique for detecting, analyzing, and identifying proteins, similar to the western blot technique. ... (Y/N). Dot Blot Lab – Instructions and Prep. This lab is available from CPET as an equipment locker; however, should you choose to prep it yourself to have your own classroom set, here’s what you’ll need: 1. Nitrocellulose membranes to blot samples (Bio-Rad, Sample cat # 162-0146).
Laboratory Techniques I | Western blot
“When we first hit the lab there are so many things to learn before we even get started that many things go unlearned” – BiteSize Bio. Overview. • Experimental Principles • Molecular biology techniques, that everyone. needs! – DNA-PCR – RNA-rt-PCR – Protein-western blotting. ... northern blotting (which is semi-quantitative). PCR experimental principles.
Southern blot lab: background, overview & protocol. ... The technique relies on capillary action. The DNA, once bound on the membrane, can then be used for ... Compare and contrast Southern blotting to northern blotting and microarray analysis.
Others modi- Northern RNA on ? fied the technique to detect specific RNA fragments and this Blot Gel method became known as Northern blotting. [When protein Dot Blot ? No Gel blotting was developed it became known as Western blotting.] ... Exercise: You will be given protein molecular weight standards, several different solutions containing individual proteins, and a sample of the same T OOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN BIOLOGICAL STUDIES 15 serum you used in the protein quantitation lab.
7 December
Southern and Northern Analysis
You will use the chromosomal DNA you prepared from mutant flies in lab 3. You will be provided with genomic DNA from the wild-type strain, W1118. You will digest DNA from the common mutant and W1118 with SacII I. You will decide which enzyme to use with your unknown mutants. ... When the technique was applied to RNA, some molecular biologist with a sense of humor dubbed the process Northern blotting; this was followed by Western blots for protein and Southwestern for blots of DNA with attached proteins.
12 November
Northern Blot With Hybridization Bottles
Lab Members. ... The volumes suggested are for a 100 cm? blot. Volumes can be adjusted according to the size of the blot and container. Be sure each solution completely covers the membrane and keeps it from sticking to the container as it shakes. The transparency technique, which conserves chemiluminescent substrate, can be used as an alternative to steps 11 through 13.
8 March
Northern Blots
Northern Blots. by Michael Koelle and Tory Herman, adapted from Sambrook et al., "Molecular Cloning" 4/6/94. We found that both formaldehyde and glyoxal gels work very well for electrophoresis of RNA; we only prefer glyoxal gels because the fumes from the formaldehyde gels are unpleasant. ... Adjust to the appropriate pH by mixing ~2/5 volume of monobasic with ~3/5 volume of dibasic 0.1 M sodium phosphate. Make using clean technique, add DEPC to 0.1%. Shake to get the DEPC droplets into solution. Leave at 37° overnight.
Electro Northern We can separate DNA and RNA molecules b DNA (or RNA) sample Ethidium bromide is f Northern, Sou In the 1970s Ed Southern of Oxford University invented a revolutionary DNA blotting technique. Ed Southern: Possib Northern a People then applied the same technique to RNA. They called it a “Northern blot”.
1. Microbiology Techniques. All commonly used microbiological lab procedures. Handling of various. microbial strains including E. coli, B. subtilis, V. harveyi, C. glutacicum, and S. cerevisiae. Chemostat and batch cultures. 2. Molecular Biology techniques. Genomic DNA isolation from bacteria and plant, Plasmid isolation, Agarose gel. electrophoresis, PCR, Molecular cloning, RNA isolation from plant tissue, Southern blot, Northern blot, qPCR.
MBG- 3602/ Techniques of Molecular Biology Lab II. ... The learning laboratory technique related with molecular biology, Molecular genetics, Gene engineering ... 1,3. 5. To do Real Time PCR, Southern blot technique, Western blot technique, Dot-blot...
Northern Blot
(7) A DNA chip contains sequences of known genes that have been attached when manufactured. In the lab two samples are prepared, one being exposed to the putative toxicant. RNA is then isolated and extracted. Reverse transcriptase is used to create cDNA which is single stranded. ... Back to top. Northern Blot. mRNA is isolated from the cells and purified. The mRNA is loaded onto a gel for electrophoresis, which separates the molecules by size.
26 December
Spring 2005
Question 4 (x points). Many of the techniques, reagents, or enzymes used or encountered in the laboratory in the four 7.02 modules (GEN, PBC, RDM, and DEV) can be grouped together based on a common "activity" or "outcome," as shown in the example below: Category ... They set up the labeling reaction with the following reagents: 1kb zcyt1 cDNA, hexanucleotide mixture (primers, buffer, salts, etc.), dNTPs (1mM dATP, 1 mM dGTP, 1 mM dCTP, 0.65 mM dTTP, 0.35mM dUTP) and Klenow. They perform the Northern blot as in lab, and get a blank film (no bands, as in the picture below).
Biochemistry Lab | Western Blot Procedure
Biochemistry Lab. Western blot Part 2 – Developing the blot. General Instructions. Background. Immunoblotting (western blots) uses specific. color. ... protein. Chemiluminecent techniques use. interactions with proteins from the gel and the. secondary antibodies conjugated (linked) to.
Inactive Content
Inactive Content. This content is currently unavailable. Please try back later.
15 December
Schlinger Lab Homepage
Techniques regularly used by members of the laboratory include: biochemical assays of steroidogenic enzyme activity, steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression via Northern blots, rtPCR/Southern blots, in situ hybridization, protein expression via immunocytochemistry, Western blots, neuroanatomical measures via light and fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, and steroid-autoradiography. Please click on the links to learn more about our lab!
21 January
Southern Blotting | ASU - Ask A Biologist
Short probes tend to be more specific. Under optimal conditions, you can expect to detect 0.1 pg of the DNA for which you are probing. This diagram shows the basic steps involved in a Southern blot. Let's look at this technique in greater detail. 1. Digest the DNA with an appropriate restriction enzyme. ... Northern Blotting.
25 May
My Webspace files
24 June
Listed here are the techniques used by our laboratory. DNA 3' -OH end labeling. TUNEL. in situ Hybridization. ... Northern blot. RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry.
20 February
Blotting techniques
Northern blot (RNA) Southern blot (DNA) Northern blot and Southern blot transfer Western Blotting.
23 February
Chapter 8 A. Recombinant DNA Technology
PCR Experiment in Microbiology Lab: Students characterized the microbial species of various ... Northern Blot--RNA - probed with radioactive DNA or RNA. ... This transfer process is called blotting and is why these hybridization techniques are called blots.
26 November
Antigens and Antibodies
A variation of this technique, developed to identify RNA, was named Northern blotting, thus continuing the directional theme. ... This technique uses gel electrophoresis to separate the proteins in a gel matrix. Because the resulting gel is fragile and would be difficult to use in further tests, the proteins are then trans-. Serological Testing 9. F I G U R E 1 2 . 4 Opening screen of the Western Blot lab. ferred to a nitrocellulose membrane.
BIBC 103: Biochemical Techniques | Lab Schedule
Small RNA Northern Blotting | McManus Lab
Wash buffer: 2xSSC/0.1%SDS. 50 mL 20x SSC + 447.5 mL autoclaved H2O + 2.5 ml 20% SDS. This protocol has been put together with the help of many people from the McManus lab and surrounding labs at UCSF! Thanks for all of your help. Methods: Small rna northern blot. Prepare glass plates for gel: Rinse plates with cold water, then clean with dishwashing liquid and warm water.
6 March
Welcome to the Cheung Lab » Lab Protocols » Southern with...
Nonisotopically labeled probes have become increasingly popular in recent years and replace radioactive probes in techniques such as in situ hybridization, Southern, Northern and Western blot analysis. The advantages of these techniques are ... This corres-ponds to the detection of a single-copy gene in <1 µg of human genomic DNA. The proced-ures described here, are used routinely in our labs and have been found to give optimal results in Southern blotting, particularly in genomic Southern blotting. 5.1. Gel Electrophoresis.
10 May
Northern Blot Analysis
Northern Blot Analysis. Northern hybridization (RNA blotting) allows us to identify the size and amount of a specific mRNA in a total RNA sample. This technique, in which a labeled probe is hybridized to homologous RNA sequences, is a powerful tool used in order to screen total RNA for the presence of a specific mRNA. Species of mRNA, comprising about 0.001% of the total mRNA population, can be identified using Northern blot hybridization. First, total RNA is isolated from cells of interest.
Biol Chem 243 Overview
b. Northern blot 4-15 to 5-4. ... There will be time in previous lab classes to prepare the solutions for the next lab. Date. ... terile techniques, isolation.
25 February
This page requires authentication.
Links to the page contain: Ali Javey Lab Research Overview....
27 October
About NOVA :: Northern Virginia Community College
Since 1964, Northern Virginia Community College has offered a quality and convenient educational experience at an affordable price. NOVA is the largest public educational institution in Virginia and the second-largest community college in the United States, comprised of more than 75,000 students and 2,600 faculty and staff members.
5 December
Protein immunoblotting | Western blotting
-This technique can be used to identify a target protein in a complex mixture, and to measure it’s expression level. -The method originated in the laboratory of George Stark at Stanford. -The name Western blot was given to the technique by W. Neal Burnette. ... - The transfer of RNA from agarose gel onto NC is called Northern blot. Western blotting. -Identification of protein based on two distinguishing properties:-1- Molecular weight 2- Antibody binding specificity.
Northern Blot Analysis
1. Place blot in hybridization bottle or bag. 2. Pre-hybridize Northern blot for a minimum of 1 hour at 42°C in Ambion ULTRAhyb™–Oligo. Buffer, 5 ml per 10 x 10 cm blot. ¦ Tip: Hybridization stringency can be increased or decreased by the hybridization temperature; how ... Page 10. ® 4308 Progressive Avenue • P.O. Box 4000 • Lincoln, Nebraska 68504 USA Technical Support: 800-645-4260 North America: 800-645-4267.
Lab #1: Introduction to Lab Techniques
Using the correct number of decimal places (as you did in the pre-lab), determine the volume of liquid in each of the 3 cylinders and record the data below. Graduate Cylinder Increment of.
Rutgers University Department of Physics and Astronomy
The web page you requested was not found. Some possible reasons for this: There may be a typographical error in the URL. The page may have been renamed. The page you are looking for may have been removed. Please use the menu at the left side of the p...
17 December
Western Blotting (Theory) : Cell biology Virtual Lab...
. you are here->home->Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering->Cell biology Virtual Lab I->Western Blotting. ... It was ?rst described by Towbin, in 1979 and has since become one of the most commonly used methods in life science research. Western blotting is a accomplished rapidly, using simple equipment and inexpensive reagents, it is commonly used laboratory technique. The specificity of the antibody- antigen interaction enables to a target protein to be identified in the midst of a complex protein mixture.
15 January
Maier/Watkins Laboratory Introduction
Maier and Watkins have merged their laboratories into a single multi-disciplinary site that uses techniques ranging over the full spectrum, from molecular to behavioral, to investigate a set of inter-related problems in the neurosciences. The laboratory is administered as a collaborative effort, with all graduate students and postdoctoral fellows being jointly supervised by Drs. ... Northern blot.
26 August
18 May
Lab 9
Laboratory 9. SDS-PAGE Analysis of AdhP and First Part of Western Blot. Just as with our PCR and plasmid purification, the results must be verified before we can move on to the next step. Here, we use a technique based on the same principles as agarose gel electrophoresis, but optimized for proteins. ... Objective: To verify the purity of AdhP and to start the first part of the Western Blot Lab. A video on making and running an SDS-PAGE gel can be found at the following link
15 April
Download Limit Exceeded
You have exceeded your daily download allowance.
18 March
Techniques in Biotechnology
• How do you keep pace with cutting edge topics and lab techniques? – Special Problems Courses: stop gap measure. STEMtech Conference, November 1, 2010. Advanced Topics in Biotech. • A single flexible course with a generic course description: This lecture/laboratory course consists of current techniques used in biotechnology research and industry. ... • Adaptation to traditional PCR. • More widely used for expression analysis. – Previously Northern blot. • Time • Quantity of material. • Not as straight-forward as originally thought.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Rejected...
The request was rejected. Attempted access from malicious IP address: IP Reputation Category: Scanners. If you think this is a mistake please contact the Help Desk at 962-HELP for assistance.
30 November
EXPERIMENT NINE | Southern Blotting
Northern blots were developed for the analysis of RNA. Northern blots are used for ... Membrane will be dried at room temperature between filter papers. During the next lab ... Southern blot (right image) the higher sensitivity of the hybridization technique allows...
Northern Blotting, Southern Blotting, Western Blotting...
Lecture & Lab Outlines. Other Stuff. daj's Home Page. Molecular Techniques. Restriction Endonucleases: These endonucleases cut DNA at specific palindromic sites. They may be either blunt end or stagger cutters. Electrophoresis: This technique separates macromolecules by size in an agarose or polyacrylamide gel. Gene Cloning
3 February
Northern Blotting problem
Northern Blotting problem. Henry the Hungry Hippo Joe90 at Wed Oct 4 05:06:54 EST 1995. ... I was wondering whether anyone could help me with a problem that we have been getting in our lab concerning Northern Blotting with total Bacterial RNA. We are trying to clean up our blots to remove ribosomal RNA interference and to improve the clarity of the bands. So far we have tried to reduce the amount of RNA loaded on the blots, this has taken a long time to produce a signal.
13 February
Lab 14: Protein Gel Staining and Western Blot, Part 2
Purpose In this activity, you will complete the Western Blot procedure and analyze your results. Since last week, your membranes were: • Blocked in 5% milk/TBST - Purpose: the milk proteins will coat the membrane wherever there isn’t already protein on the membrane. ... Observe the results of your Western blot. 1. Sketch the results in your lab notebook. Were the results similar to what you expected? Why or why not?
Education in Russia for Foreigners: Study in Russia - Russian...
Now MPEI is the largest educational and scientific centre, one of the main technical universities in Russia in the field of Power Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Radio Engineering and Electronics, Informatics and Computer Science. MPEI is rigged up with educational and scientific laboratories, offices and lecture halls with modern equipment and technical training aids. In 2010 MPEI obtained status of National Research University, since 1987 MPEI is a member of International Association of Universities.
20 September
The standard in gel, blot, and
Make the move to fluorescence gel and blot analysis methods without giving up popular radioisotope techniques. Storm system gives you proven PhosphorImager™ capability for autoradiography, direct fluorescence for nucleic acid and protein gel analysis, plus chemifluorescence for fast blot analysis—without exposures (Fig 1). ... C) Southern, Northern, Western, and other radiolabeled blotting assays produce images on storage phosphor screens 10–100 times faster than with film. And Storm imager lets you choose any radioisotope (or use nonradioactive chemifluorescence) for blotting applications.
Biography – Robert A. Mundell
24 April
Northern Blots
A Northern blot is analagous to a Southern blot, but the sample is RNA, rather than DNA. A typical use for a Northern blot is to analyze gene expression in different types of tissues. A Nortehrn blot involves the following steps: Electrophoresis of an RNA sample to resolve individual RNAs as distinct bands.
23 June
Inactive Content
Inactive Content. This page is in the process of being created or has temporarily been inactivated. If you have any questions please contact the following person...
2 February
Chemistry Lab Techniques HomePage
Soon to be the home of the Chemistry Lab Techniques Home Page.
10 April
South Dakota Board of Regents Online Courses
Students: Please be aware that per SDBOR policy, instructors can optionally allow access to a course up to 30 days prior to the official start date of the course, as reflected in WebAdvisor. This access period is designed to allow students to log into the course and orient themselves to its structure, and to resolve access, procedural, or technical issues prior to the start of the semester.
25 April
We're sorry... The requested page cannot be found.
Please visit the Department of Pathology home page. Thank you, The Johns Hopkins University Department of Pathology.
29 September
Common molecular biology | Types of blots
Common molecular biology techniques. • Restriction enzymes • Gel electrophoresis • PCR • Western/Southern/Northern blotting. ... • You can identify the presence of a certain DNA fragment or protein using special detection chemicals. – These chemicals will bind only to a certain protein/DNA sequence. • However…you have to extract your DNA fragments from your gel first. • This is called blotting. Types of blots.
Please click to continue.
Links to the page contain: To access the lab material, please click here....
10 August
Home Page | the Cuervo Lab!
We are a cell biology lab interested in how proteins are targeted to lysosomes. for their degradation and why this process is impaired during aging. PhD and MD/PhD students are welcome to rotate in our lab!!! You will get: Experience in techniques in cell-biology, molecular biology and biochemistry (organelle isolation, confocal immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, tissue culture, PCR, DNA isolation and handling, point directed mutagenesis, northern blot, electrophoresis, chromatography, protein expression and purification.....
23 December
Lab 3A: Protein Fractionation- Actin and Myosin from Chicken...
Immunoblotting (also called Western blotting) is. similar to the immunostaining technique. used in Lab1B, in that it uses an. antibody to detect a specific protein. ... (In Northern blotting, the labeled DNA is used to detect complementary mRNAs of interest.) Beca use the transfer and hybridization process for nuceic acids requires more time than is available in this lab period, the results of restriction digests of cloned genes will simulate the results of a Southern blot in comparison to a similar digest of genomic DNA.
University of Northern Colorado Applicant Portal
Search Jobs (Postings).
14 August
Server undergoing maintenance
This server is currently offline for maintenance.
Links to the page contain: Introduction to Northern/Southern Blotting....
16 December
Biotechnology Courses - Ivy Tech Community College...
Students will learn the most basic laboratory techniques in biotechnology. Lab safety, documentation, units of measurement, instrumentation lab solutions, aseptic technique, establishing a pure culture, plasmid DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR, DNA ligation and transformation of bacterial cells will be introduced during the course. ... Other essential techniques such as PCR, construction and screening of genomic or cDNA libraries, Southern and Northern blot analyses will be practiced.
15 April
Alfred State - Courses by ID
Search form.
Links to the page contain: VETS 3024 Clinical Laboratory Techniques....
19 August
Suggested Action. Main Page. Site Map. E-Services. Admissions.
Links to the page contain: Animal Lab....
6 December
Southern Blotting Southe A Southern Blot identifies specific sequences of DNA A Southern Blot may be used Southe do Restriction Digest of DNA Electrophoresis Den To To To 1 Today’s laboratory: DNA fingerprinting in a hypothetical paternity determination. ... Setting up Southe Place filter paper on top of nylon membrane Remove air bubbles Place stack of paper Setting up the Sou Plastic wrap Inverted Gel Nylon Membrane Filter paper Pap Overnight the ssDNA will diffuse by capill Next lab we will stain this membrane for.
Northern Wake Campus
BLOT A RP1. ... OPPORTUNITY. LOTN. Campus Map Northern Wake Campus. rev. 6/1/2016.
PCR, DNA extraction, RNA extraction, reverse transcription, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern blot, western blot yeast transformation, primer design Light and epifluorescence microscopy, column chromatography, filtration, crystallization, distillation, extraction, thin layer chromatography, UV-Vis spectrophotometry Spanish ... processes using both chemistry, engineering, and biology skills and lab techniques. · Maintain, optimize, and support MMR and varicella vaccine process, production line, and manufacturing site to ensure high performance, efficiency, and yield of quality products.
Separation of Mixtures Using Different... : Amrita Online Lab
Used in diagnostic laboratories for blood and urine tests. Used in dairies and home to separate butter from cream. Used in washing machines to squeeze water from wet clothes. ... Learning outcomes. Student understands the following terms: solvent extraction, chromatography, RF , centrifugation, simple distillation, fractional distillation, etc. Student acquires skills to perform experiments using the following techniques in the chemistry lab
30 September
SDSU College of Sciences
The page you were looking for does not exist, please make a selection from the menu on...
Links to the page contain: South Dakota State University: Basic Cell Culture Techniques....
15 December
Northern Blotting | Legume-Microbe Interactions Laboratory
Wash with 10?SSC for 30min. Vacuum blot 90min at 5in pressure, using 10?SSC as transfer buffer.
3 May
Sitefinity - Error Page
Page Not Found. This error has been logged and the web development staff in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences have been notified. Please try visiting the homepage of this website.
24 May
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Northern...
Protocols Lab. ... Northern blot.
29 November
Chapter Week 2: Laboratory Tel: 412 Schedule Inserting glass tubing Cleaning glassware Handling chemicals Disposing of chemicals Prepping solutions Measu 1: Inserting Glass Tubing… 2: Cleanin Soap and tap water Ta 3: Handlin Read! Don’t use too much Never touch, taste, smell Dispose of properly 3: Handlin National Fire Protection A 4: Disposal 5: Preppin 6: Measu Weigh a penny, reco 7: Handling 8: Collec 9 ... Confirmation of signature on safety notes Graph of pennies date vs. weight Lab techniques p35-36 answered All materials stapled together – name on front I must check your work before you leave.
Unit - University of Canberra
Links to the page contain: Contemporary Leadership Techniques (9200) - 3 cp, Level 3....
1 September
Northern Illinois University - Your Future. Our Focus.
April 14 open house invites prospective students to explore, experience. Is a Technology major for you? Apply engineering, mathematics, science and technical management skills to real-world problems. NIU Educate U.S. Program. 22 students traveled to Texas for a transformative week in the Houston Independent School District. ... Social Media Directory. Northern Illinois Official Athletics site:
21 November
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
© 2017 The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory LLC.
2 December
Cornell Lab News Releases
2011 News Releases. Green Gifts That Help the Birds, December 9 Gifts for bird watchers also support the Cornell Lab and its programs. Call for Mini-Grant Applicants, November 3 Celebrate Urban Birds grants help fund neighborhood events about birds and nature. More FeederWatchers Needed to Track Generations of Birds, November 1 Project FeederWatch kicks off its 25th anniversary season. ... Birds of North America.
19 September
The page you are looking for could not be found or you do not have permission to see it. You might be able to find what you are looking for on our home page or by selecting one of the tabs at the top of the page.
3 March
Lab Techniques
Lab Technique. Handling chemicals requires care and several techniques that I'd better mention. First, never handle any laboratory chemicals with your fingers--some stain, and some are corrosive. ... To be sure the lab scoop is clean, always wash and dry it before you use it. Another technique for transferring solid chemicals is to pour from the bottle onto a folded piece of paper and then pour it from the paper into the test tube (or whatever container you are using). In that way you avoid contaminating the chemical in the bottle.
13 July
Northern Blot Analysis
– augment the amount of DNA using a technique called PCR – PCR is doing DNA ... 14. Northern Blot Analysis. • Northern blotting analyzes RNA much the same way that ... each bacteria copies itself. – Can grow up billions and billions of bacteria in the lab – All...
Techniques: Northern Blot, Quantitative Real Time PCR...
Middle East Technical University, Department of Biological Sciences. Research Interest. ? new generation diagnosis systems for GMO detection. ... Target Plants: Wheat, Barley. Target Genes: Superoxide dismutase gene, Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene, Trehalase gene. Techniques: Northern Blot, Quantitative Real Time PCR (Q-PCR), Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR).
7 December
Northern Blotting A way to detect RNA molecules, particularly mRNAs Detection agent: DNA or RNA probes, ss or ds. Procedure Source of RNA: agarose gel, bacterial colonies, solution for dot blot, tissue print, RNA is attached to special filter paper (NC, PVDF, or nylon) Any sites without RNA must be blocked Probe: either radioactive (32P) or has biotin covalently attached to one of the bases. If biotin labeled, probe is detected with enzyme-linked streptavidin.
30 March
Course Catalog
College Wide. College of Advancing and Professional Studies. College of Education and Human Development. College of Liberal Arts. College of Management. College of Nursing and Health Sciences. College of Public & Community Service. College of Sci...
3 May
404 Not Found
Not Found. The requested URL was not found on this server.
According to Yandex, this site might be dangerous
Index of...
Index of /schipani/PROTOCOLS/MolecularBiologyCellCulture/013 Northern Blot. Name Last modified Size Description. Parent Directory - .DS_Store 2013-11-22 14:14 6.0K Northern Blotting.doc 2009-12-29 14:52 21K.
24 May
labsylabus | Schedule of Laboratory Exercises
This laboratory is designed to teach general principles of immunology and to supplement, with hands-on experience, the lecture. After completing the laboratory, students should have working knowledge of some basic immunological techniques. Many of these techniques are not unique to the field of irmmunology, but are used in diverse fields of biology. ... 7 Innate immunity: bacterial lysis by lysozyme.Worksheet due next class period, 10 points. Western blot lab report due (50 points).
14 December
Theodora Ross Lab Protocols | Southern Blot Techniques
Overview of PCR analyses. Protocol for making chimeric mice. Southern Blot Techniques. Hybridizing Southern using random primed DNA labeling kit.
14 December
To understand the basic techniques used to work with nucleic acids, remember that ... Hybridization, Southern Blotting, and Northern Blotting Nucleic acid samples, such as ... You are working in a molecular biology lab and, unbeknownst to you, your lab partner left...
Northern Blot. Transgenic line -ID. STTM-miR166-arabidopsis. ... Northern Blot PCR image 1.
10 April
Access to Programs for Students with Disabilities Policy
Laboratory Orientation and Preparation for SDS-PAGE • The Do’s and Don’ts in the lab- Discussion of Lab Safety • Discussion of various laboratory techniques used for the. ... 02]. Western Blotting and Immunostaining-I • Demonstration of Western blotting • Electrophoresis AND Western blotting of HEK 293T/HeLa. cell lysate polypeptides. • Detection of polypeptides on Western blots by Ponceau-S. staining.
Webpages No Longer Available
The astronomy pages formerly available at this address are no longer available. They were left up, without maintenance, for almost 20 years, because there were many requests from users to do so. However, astronomy and astrophysics knowledge evolves, ...
16 December
State University of New York at New Paltz
SCHOOLS & COLLEGES. College of Liberal Arts & Sciences. School of Business. School of Education. School of Fine & Performing Arts. School of Science & Engineering. Graduate School.
8 February
Techniques. return to project home page.
8 August
Error 404 - Document Not Found | | CSUSM
7 October
Links to descriptions of chemistry lab techniques
Links to descriptions of chemistry lab techniques. ... Links to Descriptions of Chemistry Laboratory Techniques. Vacuum Filtration.
5 January
New Page 3
[View Illustrations] | [Return to Listing].
Links to the page contain: A numerical Comparative Study of Various Flooding Techniques in......
19 August
Course Detail - Davidson College
© 2017 Davidson College Davidson, North Carolina 704-894-2000.
26 June
Northern Blot Analysis
1. Place blot in hybridization bottle or bag. 2. Pre-hybridize Northern blot for a minimum of 1 hour at 42°C in Ambion ULTRAhyb™–Oligo. Buffer, 5 ml per 10 x 10 cm blot. ¦ Tip: Hybridization stringency can be increased or decreased by the hybridization temperature; how ... Page 10. ® 4308 Progressive Avenue • P.O. Box 4000 • Lincoln, Nebraska 68504 USA Technical Support: 800-645-4260 North America: 800-645-4267.
Mahatma gandhi university | Course II - Biological techniques
Blotting techniques-Western, southern and Northern blotting. Microscopy- Microscopes, Numerical aperture, magnifications, bright field microscopy, Phase contrast, fluorescence, confocal, interference and polarization microscopes. Electron microscopes and specimen preparations. ... Biochemistry 6. Trivedy, R.K and P.K. Goel (1986) Chemical Biological methods for water pollution. studies, Environmental publications, Karad 415110, India 7. Monica Cheesbrough (2005) Medical Laboratory Manual for tropical countries, Vol 2, LBS 8. Mackie and Mc Cartney (2002) Practical Medical Microbiology, Churchil- Livingstone 9...
Pages · Towson University
11 June
University of Maryland Libraries
Staff Directory. Circulation, Reserves, Billing & Interlibrary Loan. Technical Support. Suggestions.
15 December
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Departments, Centers, Labs. Ocean Institutes.
4 October
This | Western Blotting
The term “Western” blotting was coined in a. distantly remembered discussion with Bob. I Nowinski, an allusion to both the geographic. In late 1977, I left my postdoc at Albert Ein- location of our laboratory and to Southern and. stein College of Medicine, to join Bob Northern blotting. ... morously nicknamed this technique “Northern” visual darity of the results. Perhaps its most blotting in homage to the original developer of important clinical implementation has been as a. DNA blotting, EM.
Free downloads | ANU Press
Links to the page contain: The Linen Memorial: State and Sectarian Violence in Northern Ireland....
10 January
UThink has been retired
The UThink Blog service has been retired. This means that you will no longer be able to access UThink to administer blogs or view blogs. The entire service has been shut down. We are sorry for any inconvenience. UThink staff still have limited access...
15 December
The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio
Links to the page contain: Northern Mariana Islands....
18 December
Obsolete URL
Obsolete OhioLINK URL. The URL you have requested is no longer supported by the OhioLINK ETD system. Please only use ETD permalinks to access ETD documents.
13 December
Project Biotech
This camp provides hands-on lab and computer activities like those researchers use to study infectious disease outbreaks with diagnostic tools like ELISAs and Western blots, as well as sequence analysis of global flu strains to understand how a seasonal flu can change to a pandemic. ... For students with biology or biotech lab experience, including 2014-2016 camps & “Biotechnology Essentials” alumni. Advanced lab techniques for diagnosing & treating disease including: Outbreak Investigations. SDS-PAGE & Western blots.
22 April
UNSW Moodle: Authentication choice
UNSW Students use this link for all your support needs. UNSW Staff use this link for all your support needs. Alternative logins: UNSW Australian Graduate School of Management Executive Education only UNSW Institute of Languages only Other institution...
24 April
Union County College
We're sorry, we are unable to display this page right now. Please contact our helpdesk at (908) 709-7979 for more details.
21 May
Read the Web :: NELL KnowledgeBase Browser
Links to the page contain: underwriters_laboratories....
13 October
MetEd: Teaching and Training Resources for the Geoscience...
Int'l Warning Systems. CALMet. Northern Latitudes. Broadcast Meteorology. Facebook Group. ... Resources. Registration and Support FAQs. Technical Notes. The COMET Virtual Classroom. Meteorology Glossaries.
16 July
Home - University for Development Studies
The Spanish Laboratory Complex. UDS International Journal of Development (UDSIJD). Institutional Repository (IR).
23 March
Laboratory techniques and molecular biology
Lab.and Aseptic Conditions and Basic Stem Cell Laboratory Techniques: Primary, suspension, monolayer and 3D cultures : Isolation of stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue for clinical applications. Prof. ... : APPLICATION (KOGEM/MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LAB I and II). Protein isolation. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting (M.KASAP, G.DURUKSU, G.AKPINAR, Z.S.UNAL, O.SAGLAM,) Introduction of proteomix lab.
Welcome | The Cooper Union
From its beginnings, Cooper Union was a unique institution, dedicated to founder Peter Cooper's proposition that education is the key not only to personal prosperity but to civic virtue and harmony. Peter Cooper wanted his graduates to acquire the technical mastery and entrepreneurial skills, enrich their intellects and spark their creativity, and develop a sense of social justice that would translate into action.
2 March
Basic Genetics
Learn.Genetics visitors, We’re asking for your help. For over 20 years, the Learn.Genetics website has provided engaging, multimedia educational materials at no cost. Learn.Genetics is one of the most-used science websites. Tens of millions of visito...
6 January
The University of Texas at Arlington - UT Arlington - UTA
UTA has received a highly valued National Institutes of Health grant that will help the university train doctoral students in using and developing more nanotechnology tools that will battle cardiovascular and pulmonary ailments. Excellence in art. UT...
31 July
The Rorschach Ink Blot
The Rorschach Ink Blot: Still widely used clinical instrument: Most frequently used projective test; Most frequently taught projective technique in counseling psychology programs and practicum sites. Extensively used as a research instrument: Thousands of references in the Mental Measurements Yearbook.
16 February
Study English in USA for International Students - ELS
Find the right program to study English in the USA for international students. Discover the ELS School of English and enjoy the experience of a lifetime.
1 March
Center for Biofilm Engineering - Center for Biofilm Engineering
Conferences & Workshops World Wide. Job Opportunities. Lab Safety and Information. Speaker Guide.
9 September
University of Missouri-St. Louis
Home to programs that consistently earn high rankings in their fields and is the largest university in St. Louis, and the third largest in Missouri.
2 March
Usability Testing Lab
What is a usability testing lab? Many formal usability tests are conducted in a lab environment. A lab is a physical space where a single tester or a group of testers work with a client to conduct tests on actual users. The ASU lab has powerful technologies, such as eye tracking, remote viewing, data collection/analysis, and video technologies to observe and measure the way people interact with information for the sake of making productive changes. What is the end result of a test?
31 July
Lab Techniques. Doing reactions from start to finish. Purification procedures.
University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions
Links to the page contain: Chapter 8: Agents and Techniques for Child Training......
29 January
University of Vermont / Theses and Dissertations
Bailey / Howe Library. 538 Main Street · Burlington VT, 05405-0036. ph: 802.656.2023 · fax: 802.656.4038. Problems with this page? Contact the Library Webmasters.
27 February
Week 2 - Lab Techniques
Week 2 - Lab Techniques.
27 February
A top public university, we’re fulfilling the promise every day.
IU South Bend will help you fulfill your potential. It offers a classic college experience—including more than 100 degree programs, NAIA athletics, and student housing—in north-central Indiana.
18 June
AIIMS - All India Institute Of Medical Science
???? ?????? ???????????? ???????, ?? ?????? All India Institute Of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.
1 September
TEXT: • Boothby: Immunological Techniques Laboratory Syllabus Biological Students Association (DH 346) 2008. • Harlow & Lane: Antibodies (reference/recommended) Cold Springs Harbor Press 1988. • Abbas KA and Lichtman AH: Cellular and molecular immunology 6th edition 2007 Elsevier Saunders publishing 2005. ... Western Blot.
labschedule2005 | Western Blotting Lab Report (100 pts)
9. Experience working “at the bench” in a controlled environment. 10. Be able to perform several molecular techniques including microarray analysis, real time PCR, Western Blotting, protein, RNA and DNA isolation. ... Western Blotting Lab Report. Monday, September 29/ Tuesday, September 30.
4 January
Physical separation techniques | Lab #2
Techniques useful for the separation of mixtures include the following: DISTILLATION is the purification of a liquid by heating it to its boiling point, causing vaporization, and then condensing the vapors into the liquid state and collecting the liquid. Separation of two or more liquids requires that they have different boiling temperatures. ... 2.(1 point) Using the above physical properties, complete the flow chart given on the second page of this lab by giving the reagents and/or conditions necessary to affect each indicated separation step and how the components will be separated.
Oakland University Home
‘Food for Fines’ Kresge Library program expands to include Educational Resources Lab. OU’s Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Conference featured leading experts, first SOGI award. Three honored with OU’s top student awards.
15 December
Stanford University Explore Courses
Discussion Section (DIS). Laboratory (LAB).
21 March
UH - Digital History
PRIMARY SOURCES • Landmark Documents • Court Cases • Supreme Court Cases...
Links to the page contain: using new technologies and techniques to teach history....
6 January
DNA Forensics Problem Set
DNA fingerprinting, also termed DNA profile analysis is based on the use of the "Southern" hybridization technique to analyze polymorphic regions of human DNA. Polymorphisms are explained in more detail in problem 5. The experimental steps used in a forensics laboratory for DNA profile analysis are as follows ... Following neutralization of the basic solution, the single strand DNA molecules are transferred to the surface of a nylon membrane by blotting. This denaturation/blotting procedure is known as a "Southern blot" after the inventor, Edwin Southern. Just as the blotting of wet ink on a dry paper...
7 September
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences UTHSCSA
The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio helps students succeed in evolving biomedical studies.
15 September
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
The oldest public university in Texas, this flagship university provides the best return-on-investment among Texas's public schools, with almost 400 degrees.
15 December
Duke University Press
News From The Press.
Links to the page contain: ...War, History and Everyday Moments in Northern Uganda....
31 July
Not Voodoo
© 2017 Alison Frontier, University of Rochester. Supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
26 September
Symbaloo - Your Bookmarks and favorites in the cloud
Access your bookmarks and online favorites with Symbaloo. A free social bookmarking service in the cloud. Pro versions available for business & education...
9 August
Timeroom: Fall 2017 | UNH Course Search
Students perform routine health-related procedures and gain valuable hands-on skills and safe animal handling techniques which can be applied to the fields of veterinary medicine, animal research, commercial agriculture, and animal control. 1 lec/1 lab.
24 November
eCampus: Login
Our new site integrates all related tools and services into convenient categories. We hope you will agree that the new site navigation design, which replaces the traditional list hyperlinks to various tools and services with a "tabbed" form...
24 April
Could you determine a restriction map from a DNA fingerprint on an electrophoresis gel? Course objective: Students will be able to explain major methods and techniques used in molecular genetics to isolate, recombine, amplify, find and study genes of interest. Necessary for future material on: last five genetics labs. Helpful for Directed Studies and Internships in research labs. Biotechnology, cont. Blotting and Probing. What is a Southern blot vs. a Northern blot?
Page Not Found.
Links to the page contain: Illustration Techniques....
28 September
Western blotting tips and | Gomes Lab/UC Davis 2009
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE. 1. Suboptimal protein transfer. This is the most common complaint with western blotting and could be due to many different problems listed below. a) Low quality membrane used for transfer. High quality PVDF membrane is the blotting membrane of choice as low molecular weight proteins are sometimes transferred through nitrocellulose membranes and therefore may be not visible on the blot.
Course Detail
Course Contents Detail. Programme Name: INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE. This course will focus on environment, its types and frame work of ecology, atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere, biogeochemical cycles, biological diversity and its d...
31 October
Secondary antibody incubation on shaker table: Blots: Blue Group Red Group Yellow Group Orange Group. Idealized blot with size markers on left and two different concentrations of antigen on right
7 January
Home | University of Technology Sydney
Equal futures. At UTS, diversity and excellence go hand in hand. We are one of just three Australian universities consistently recognised as a Workplace Gender Equality Agency employer of choice, and we’re proud to be part of the SAGE Athena SWAN pil...
15 December
Biotechnology (BTEC) | Advanced Nucleic Acid Laboratory
Master lab skills relevant to DNA technology; including recombinant DNA cloning, DNA gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction and DNA mutagenesis. Explore cutting-edge techniques such as DNA micro arrays. Course fee of $86 for lab applies. BTEC 2020. ... * Prerequisite(s): BTEC 2010 with minimum. grade of C-. Teaches current techniques with protein production, purification, and analysis. Includes instruction and practice with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), chromatography, western blot, and FPLC analysis.
Digital Commons@Georgia Southern - Interdisciplinary STEM...
Students have responded favorably to the new lab module, reporting that designing their own experiments gave them more ownership of their work. Overall, this project provided students the opportunity to conduct authentic biotechnological research, to learn laboratory techniques necessary for investigation at the DNA and protein level, and to become more informed participants in the global debate over the use of GM foods. ... Session Title. Detection of Genetically-Modified Foods via PCR, Western Blot and Elisa Analyses: An Undergraduate Biotechnological Laboratory Techniques Course.
16 January
General Biology 2 - Analysis of DNA
In the Southern Blot technique, the bits of DNA are denatured (separating the strands) and transferred to nylon ... Variation: Northern Blot. ... When important genes are isolated in human diseases or in studies from lab organisms, a quick search can often find where...
3 July
This certificate in Advanced Chemistry Lab Skills emphasizes basic laboratory skills, plus experience with distillation, refluxing, purification techniques, melting point determinations, and hands-on use of FTIR. Ideal for students seeking a research internship, this certificate demonstrates advanced skill and the ability to work independently in both organic and inorganic lab settings.
Abi biotechnology research internship
By working on this project, students will learn all basic techniques in molecular cloning including PCR, restriction digestion, ligation, plasmid extraction, E. Coli transformation, and gel electrophoresis, etc. Students also have chance to learn to run ELISA, western blotting, northern blotting, gas chromatography and liquid chromatography. Another research area of my lab is biofuel production from cellulosic plant biomass such as dedicated energy crops, rice and wheat straw, and duckweed, etc.
Engineering | University of Maryland Eastern Shore
The Engineering Program is founded on the basic sciences and emphasizes the development of a high degree of technical competence. It integrates these elements: (1)basic sciences, including mathematics, physics, and chemistry; (2) engineering sciences including mechanics of solids and fluids, engineering materials, thermodynamics, electrical and electronic circuits, and transport phenomena; (3) engineering design, which applies the above elements into the creation of systems, components and processes while optimizing resources; and (4)...
6 December
University Historic Photograph Collection | Libraries | Colorado...
Home. Galleries. Browse. About. Contact. Archives. Share.
Links to the page contain: At work in Dairy Lab....
8 April
BIO 440
BIO 440. Genetics Laboratory Southern Hybridization. ... In the case of Southern, Northern, and Western blots, the initial separation of molecules is done on the basis of molecular weight. (Some cloning approaches use a very different technique--the construction of plasmid or cosmid libraries).
Alumni Medical Library: Allied Health Resources
Anatomy. Laboratory Techniques and Procedures. Nursing. Nutrition.
3 July
SDS-PAGE "Hall of Shame" | Lab part 3
The "Hall of Shame" presents examples of some of the worst gels students (and instructor) have run in past labs, with an example or two from a research lab. They represent many of the ways one can mess up a gel (but not all of them - we're still finding new ways!). See what features of your own gel(s) were unsatisfactory - or at least less than perfect - and use the illustrations to figure out what you might do to improve your technique.
26 December
FASTbook Online
BL 03 Voice Lab BL 04 Piano Lab Bass Atrium Concession Stand FA 12 Classroom FA 15 FA 15A FA 310 Classroom FA 311 Classroom FA 340 Classroom FA 344 Reh Hall FA 345 Classroom FA 346 Classroom FA 401 Classroom FA 402 Classroom FA Burg Auditorium FA Kirk Dress.
9 June
Western blotting (Tim yan’s lab version)
Western blotting (Tim yan’s lab version). Lysis buffer recipe: 500 ml bottle of PBS + 0.5% NP40 + 10% Glycerol.
Please Wait...
Please Wait... Click here to access the page to which you are being forwarded.
24 April
InfoSec Handlers Diary Blog - Internet Storm Center Diary...
To search for such hidden content, I wrote a quick Python script[2] based on the XLRD[3] module. Yes, Python has third-party modules for almost any task! The goal is to detect two techniques to hide data
19 April
Lab Techniques
Lab Techniques. Basic Glassware. Making Solutions.
12 August
Common Laboratory Techniques
This chapter explains the proper manner in which to carry out rudimentary chemistry laboratory techniques. More specialized techniques associated with particular analyses are covered in the on-line notes associated with the experiment in which the technique is used. 1. Measuring Mass. High precision and accuracy electronic balances are used to determine mass in organic lab. Each of these balances costs $1,000-$3,000. Treat them with care. Accuracy and precision will be lost if poor weigh techniques are used.
Laboratory Techniques
Titration. Laboratory Information. General Chemistry Help Homepage.
22 January
Lab Techniques Assignment
Lab Techniques Assignment. Organic Chemistry 2125 Amorde Fall 09. MSDS We are using and making several interesting natural products this semester, although these products are natural are they also non-toxic?
Laboratory Science - Northern Essex Community College
Laboratory Science. “The program is excellent. You are extremely well prepared for the workplace. You hone those hands-on technical skills that are so important. I am so glad I attended Northern Essex.” ... If you are seeking a degree that will allow you to get a job right after graduation in the exciting field of life sciences as an entry level laboratory technician, NECC’s Applied Sciences Associate Degree is for you. Lab technicians prepare samples, run tests, troubleshoot and maintain instrumentation, and can also analyze data and communicate findings.
2 July
Fluorescent-Antibody Techniques and ELISA
ELISA techniques use antibodies linked to an enzyme, such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. Antigen – antibody reactions are detected by enzyme activity. An antibody linked to the indicator enzyme is added to the test well and is bound in the well if the antigen it is specific for is present. ... Fluorescence is much easier and more sensitive for lab work but not practical for use outside of a well equipped lab. Western Blotting (Immunoblotting).
23 March
Bio 181 Molecular Biology Lab Schedule
14 {20} Southern blotting (start). Prepare DNA & digest. Lab 22: (finish) Gel electrophoresis. Handout/Lab 13. Nov.19 {21}Southern blots: Gel electrophoresis of digested DNA. Begin transfer.
Request an Article | Lobster Institute | University of Maine
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming.
6 December
Gaziantep University
Directorate of construction and technical works. Office of press, printing, and public relations.
2 July
The New School | Course Catalog
The New School in New York City offers degrees in liberal arts, music, design, social sciences, as well as certificate programs...
7 March
Academic Computing
Open Labs. Teaching Labs. Classroom Technology.
30 September
Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University...
Position responsibilities and duties include: maintaining nematode cultures in greenhouse; preparing nematodes for plant inoculations; design and execution of experiments; data management; facilitating lab operations. In addition to greenhouse work, laboratory techniques will involve molecular techniques (e.g., PCR; real-time PCR; DNA, RNA and protein purification; DNA cloning; gel electrophoresis; sequencing; western, Southern and northern blotting; in situ hybridizations) and plant tissue culture.
Vascular Biology Lab
Vascular Biology Lab Facilities. Isolated Mammalian Heart System. Multimode Reader. ... CO2 Incubator. -86 Degree Ultralow Freezer. Western Blot.
16 February
Selected Plant and Soil Laboratories
Inquiries regarding the University’s nondiscrimination policies may be directed to the Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Director, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1111 Franklin Street, 6th Floor, Oakland, CA 94607, (510) 987-0096. Selected Plant and Soil Laboratories in Northern and Central California - 2011. Lab Name.
Microbiology Lab Experiment Changes
Miscellaneous Environmental plate bacteria. Changes: Use paper towels not bibulous paper to blot dry. Procedure: 1. First we will practice aseptic techniques with sterile. tubes. 2. Instructor will demonstrate how to make a bacterial smear and perform a simple stain.
Home - JCU Australia
JCU ranked in the top 2% of universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU).
16 December
The concentration of an unknown solution of CuSO4(aq) will then be determined by measuring its absorbance and using Beer's law. 1-1. Experiment 1 - Review of Lab Techniques. PRE-LABORATORY PREPARATION. 1. Read the background, procedure and data analysis sections of the experiment. 2. Review the use of volumetric glassware (pipets and volumetric flasks) and density calculations.
Entrepreneurship Lab | LUBIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
The Entrepreneurship Lab was founded on February 16, 2012 as a collaborative workspace designed to bring together students.
2 March
BIOL 230 Lab Manual, Lab 6
Therefore, one must use very precise techniques in Gram staining and interpret the results with discretion. Return to Menu for Lab 6. ORGANISMS. Trypticase Soy agar plate cultures of Escherichia coli (a small, Gram-negative bacillus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (a Gram-positive coccus with a staphylococcus arrangement). ... f. Blot dry (see Fig. 11) and observe using oil immersion microscopy. Instructions for Focusing a Microscope from Lab 1.
17 October
Dot Blot
Dot Blot (Western). Cut membrane (Nitrocelluose) to size of 96 well apparatus. Prewet with 1X TBS, place on apparatus. ... Block nonspecific binding with 5% nonfat dry milk TTBS for 90 min. on shaker. Incubation O/N at 4°C not necessarily on a shaker is also possible. Follow the protocol of western blotting (primary and secondary antibody, ECL detection system).
27 January
Special Make-up Effects 301: Lab Techniques | Make-up...
This course is designed to provide instruction in the lab and formulation techniques that are required to create contemporary film and television make-up effects. Students will learn prosthetic application, with a focus on the details of prosthetic appliance development. The course takes students through all the phases of project conceptualization and prosthetic application, including design, sculpture, molding, formulation of foam latex and gelatin, as well as seaming, painting, and applying prosthetic pieces.
5 December
Basic Research Division | Skeletal Biology Laboratory
Lab Associates. Russell T. Turner, Director. Urszula T. Iwaniec, PhD. ... Laboratory Techniques, Equipment and Space. ... Molecular Dynamic Phosphor-Image Scanner for Northern blots.
15 July
LABORATORY SCHEDULE. Title/Agenda Introduction to lab techniques 1) Introduction and safety talk. ... Protein Analysis -Western Blot 1) Western Blot: Incubation with antibodies, etc.
Browsing Pathology Laboratory Techniques by Title
Browsing Pathology Laboratory Techniques by Title. Open Access Home. Associate Degree Programs.
12 September
Links to the page contain: 2016SP_EGEE_3980_01 Ind St-CircuitsInstrumntn Lab....
6 October
ESCI 315: Laboratory Techniques in Earth Science. Syllabus. Course Bulletin Board - Reminders.
12 August
Molecular Biology Protocols - Southern Blot
lab members. ... Day 2-Setting up Blot. 1) Run gel slowly. 2) Photograph gel with ruler (this will allow you to line up the markers with your bands. ... Northern Blotting.
30 December
Follow Us!
Academic Advantages. Life at BMS. Life in North Cyprus. ... Technical vocational school.
2 April
Northern Blotting: Using a Cloned... — HCC Learning Web
Northern Blotting: Using a Cloned Gene to find mRNA.
9 March
Coordinated Science Lab, Illinois
The Information Trust Institute (ITI). Initiatives. About the Lab. Celebrating 65 years of Science. Traveling to CSL. ... Postdocs. Visiting Scholars. Business and Technical Contacts. Home » Directory.
24 March
Guidelines for Writing a Formal Lab Report
• Lab partner (if applicable). • Purpose: A brief statement of the goal of the laboratory experiment. • Procedure: A brief description summarizing the procedural steps that were carried out the lab with enough details that someone who has already done a similar experiment can reproduce the work Answer the question, “What did you do?” ... Do not give instructions! This section should NOT be a list of steps. – Omit trivial information on accepted laboratory techniques (e,g. cleaning and conditioning a buret).
Computer Science & Engineering
Labs & Research Groups. ... Sabanc? University Computer Science and Engineering Program mission is to educate computer engineers with advanced technical and intellectual background, who can make a difference in competitive environments, continuously improve their technological skills, are faithful to ethical values, are self-confident, initiative-taking, and are fluent in both Turkish and English.
5 September
Lab #6: Techniques of Integration
Lab #6: Techniques of Integration Calculus 2 Dr Samuels. The following integrals can all be done with techniques we know, but they are quite tricky. Maple has a mode where it will show you every step of how to do an integral. (click 'tools' > 'tutors' > 'calculus-single variable' > 'integration methods'. After typing your function, click 'next step'.)
Approaches to study of RNA and proteins using recombinant DNA techniques. RNA extraction and affinity isolation of mRNA, Northern blot analysis, cDNA library construction and screening, bacterial or eukaryotic expression systems, purification and characterization of recombinant proteins, site-directed mutagenesis. Two three-hour labs per week.
5 January
KNH 682 Laboratory Techniques in Exercise Science (2)
Laboratory-based class examining the various concepts specifically related to measurement and experimentation in exercise science.
19 May
Lab 10
Lab 10 Operational Amplifier Applications II. Purpose This lab studies some of the advanced uses of op amps. The circuits studied will. include the inverting integrator, and the differential amplifier. Material and Equipment 741 Op Amp Assorted Resistors (2k (2), 39k (2)) Capacitor (1 µF) Theory. ... The circuit in Figure 10-1 is an inverting or a Miller integrator. The device can be analyzed using standard op-amp analysis techniques.
BIOL 4700: Neurobiology Lab Course Syllabus - Summer 2014
Catalog description: A research lab course that will introduce laboratory techniques used in neurobiological research. The research organism is the crayfish and laboratory techniques introduced include videotaping and producing ethograms of crayfish behavior, electrophysiological studies of the crayfish nervous system, immunocytochemical techniques and some molecular biology techniques such as RNA extraction, cloning of DNA and Western Blots.
Gravistimulation of Pisum Sativum and Expression
Therefore, after using RT-PCR to create a probe and optimizing northern blot techniques to accommodate limitations in the lab, it was discovered that expression of what is believed to be the expansin gene reaches its maximum in approximately 24 hours (Figure 4.10). However, as stated before there was the possibility that it may not have been expansin, and therefore optimization of RT-PCR is required so that a know expansin probe is generated to screen with.
Fox Valley Technical College
Fox Valley Technical College® offers education for high-demand careers! 200+ associate degrees, technical diplomas, certificate programs, seminars, customized training for business and continuing education. ... Either fly in or drive in for a French toast breakfast and explore the aviation training hangar and labs, visit with faculty and try out our full-motion Redbird flight simulators.
30 May
Welcome to the Shi Lab! | Techniques you can learn from here
Equipment in the Shi lab include: Four ThermoCyclers for polymerase chain reaction, hybridization oven, X?ray film processor, Beckman LS6500 scintillation counter, electrophoresis and gel documentation system, incubators, incubated shakers, electroporator for bacterial ... Molecular genetics techniques including EMS mutagenesis, mutant screening, mutant phenotyping, map?based cloning, DNA sequencing, genetic complementation, etc; Luciferase imaging based techniques; DNA, RNA, and protein isolation; Northern hybridization and qPCR; Western blotting; Protein expression and...
Other techniques
Other techniques. PCR: polymerase chain reaction. Sequences of DNA are amplified using repeated sequences of denaturation, addition of primers, and primer extension. Southern blotting is used to identify DNA strands using a radioactively labeled probe.
12 December
BIO 538 Study Guide
How does the stringency of hybridization conditions affect the ability of DNA to form double-stranded molecules? Describe the process and the purpose of the following techniques: in situ hybridization. chemical mutagenesis. ... gel electrophoresis. RNA interference. Northern blot.
28 April
Student Announcements | Northern Michigan University
Northern Michigan University, located in Marquette, Michigan, is a dynamic four-year, public, comprehensive university that has grown its reputation based on its award-winning leadership programs, cutting-edge technology initiatives and nationally recognized academic programs. ... Ask a few Northern students what drew them to our university and you will get a variety of answers. That's because there is no single thing that make students want to go to Northern; it is ALL the things that we do here. Northern is big enough to offer a wide variety of academic programs but is also small enough that every time you walk...
11 March
Topics: Laboratory Techniques Lab - Main Page | Home
My Courses. Topics: Laboratory Techniques Lab. There are no sub-contexts beneath this context.
23 July
Laboratory Techniques
Some of the experiments that you will do will require construction of simple glass apparatus. In preparing for these experiments, you will need to become familiar with the various manipulations of glass tubing. Improper techniques may result in an apparatus that does not work well, or may result in nasty cuts. (1) Cutting of glass tubes (or rods). Place on your lab bench desk top a piece of 6 mm glass tubing about 12 cm long. Make a deep scratch across the tube with one stroke using a triangular file. If the file is dull, several strokes may be required – all strokes should be in the same dire...
Agri 201 – Lab Techniques
Agri 201 – Lab Techniques. Atomic absorption- calcium.
Lectures, Practical Courses, Presentation, Seminar, Project, Laboratory Applications (if necessary). ECTS / Table Of Workload (Number of ECTS credits allocated). ... 0. Lab Study.
28 March
Lab 1: Lab Techniques, Measurements and Safety...
Lab 9: Sn1, Sn2, E1, E2 (worksheet + lab report) a. Lab 9 Posted on MyParker A. Lab 10: Alkene reactions (worksheet + lab report) Dehydration (from organic 2) a. Lab 10 posted on MyParker B. Lab Final.
Teacher Institute | Exploratorium
Gift Matching. The Exploratorium Lab. Party at the Piers. Afterglow. ... General & Contributing Levels. Join the Exploratorium Lab. Lab Levels & Benefits.
2 October
GROK Knowledge Base
Anyone with a valid PAWS ID and a Tiger Card now has the ability to print out documents remotely from their laptop in any of the LSU Public Access computer labs. Once you connect to a printer and submit your print job, all you have to do is use your Tiger Card to release and pay for the job at the PHAROS pay-station located in the lab where your print job was submitted. There are two wireless printing options for Mac users, using web release through MyPrintCenter using your web browser or by installing the Mac Printer Package through TigerWare.
21 November
Measurement and proper lab techniques
Measurement and proper lab techniques. Pre-Lab Questions 1. Why are significant digits important to use when reporting measurements? 2. Why should you not weigh chemicals directly onto the balance pan? 3. What is the difference between a volumetric (transfer) pipet and a buret?
Astronomy 105 Lab is not a team effort
Astronomy 105 Laboratory. LAB 01. Astronomy 105 Lab Policies. § Come prepared! u Reading assignment (see Calendar on syllabus). u Always bring the following to lab. pencil, calculator, lab manual. u Use pencil only, neatness and accuracy important!! u Read carefully Classroom Policies in Syllabus. Astronomy 105 Lab Policies.
Additional information
Tuition fees. The fee displayed is the current 2016 tuition fee. TIWA tuition fees are reviewed annually and can be viewed in the 2016 Schedule of Fees. If tuition fees are increased you will be required to pay the new fees as they are introduced. Yo...
22 February
Experimental Lab
Objective: The objective of this lab is to demonstrate and validate the principle of superposition using both an experimental lab and theory. For this lab you and your team members will be required to submit a joint lab report. Theoretical Background: The principle states: If the structural behavior is linearly elastic the forces acting on a structure may be separated or divided in any convenient fashion and the structure analyzed for the separate cases. The final results can then be obtained by adding algebraically the individual results. Many of the analytical techniques used in structural a...
Auditory Neuroscience Lab | Otolaryngology | University of...
> Auditory Neuroscience Lab. Vestibular Hair Cell Laboratory. Head and Neck Cancer Laboratory. Chemosensory Transduction Laboratory. Auditory Neuroscience LabCurrently selected. ... We use a multidisciplinary approach to tackle these questions employing both experimental and theoretical techniques including human and animal psychophysics, extracellular physiology, signal detection and information theory, systems identification techniques, acoustic transfer function measurement and modeling, digital filter design and estimation, acoustic signal design, and physiological systems modeling.
6 August
CHEM 103 Lab › Lab documentation | Lab techniques
CHEM 103 Lab. Your online lab manual. ... Besides mass measurements, bureting/pipetting are the other techniques that you will frequently be doing in the laboratory. A titration is the gradual addition of a known volume of one reagent (the titrant) to another reactant until the observed completion of a chemical reaction. Typically, an indicator is employed to signal the complete consumption of the […]
2 September
Programs | Clover Park Technical College
Clover Park Technical College offers 56 degrees and 56 certificates in a variety of practical career fields. Whatever field of study you choose, you'll get hands-on training that will prepare you for a successful career. Within these programs we offer a number of different degrees and certificates. ... Clover Park Technical College offers cutting-edge technical programs where students learn the latest skills and techniques for their chosen career.
2 September
Course: PTA.126 Measurement Techniques Lab ([syn #])
6 | PTA.126 Measurement Techniques Lab. 4/16 amw. Grading Criteria: Assessments Lab Homework (9 @ 5 points each) Journal Article Review Assignment & Presentation Midterm Lab Practical Final Lab Practical Professional Behavior, Attendance & Promptness Competencies Total Points
Drafting Techniques
See Boyd Ostroff's Floor Plan and Cross Section for the Act One set of Al Boheme. Link to Robert Gardiner's Technical Drawings for Theatre - Section Views at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC. 7. What are the three commonly used line widths? ... Detail Drawings, if needed. The following three process were developed with the pencil and paper draftsman in mind. Link to Drafting Techniques with a CAD Program: 1. Briefly outline the process of drafting a floor plan.
10 December
Quantitative techniques
9 December
College of Public Health
In this course, each lecture will be supported by a “wet lab” where students would get hands on experience in laboratory research techniques using basic and advanced biochemical and molecular tools. ... Isolation and/or characterization of biomolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) • Measurement of protein and nucleic acid in solutions • Immunological techniques like western blot and ELISA. • Basic principles and applications of colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and flow cytometry • Centrifugation • Microfiltration/membranes (filtration techniques) • Using commercial kits.
passaic county community college - PCCC
Apr 19. Public Speaking. Apr 20. Career/Job Fair. Apr 22. Open House.
3 August
Recent Earthquakes in California and Nevada - Index Map
US and World - USGS/NEIC = National Earthquake Information Center Northern California - UCB = University of California, Berkeley Southern California - Caltech = California Institute of Technology Southern California - UCSD = University of California, San Diego Nevada - UNR = University of Nevada, Reno Offshore = West Coast & Alaska Tsunami Warning Center ...all members of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS).
19 December
Certificate IV in Laboratory Techniques - CQU
8 March
HSV Western Blot Serology Type specific antibody testing for...
HSV Western Blot Serology Type specific antibody testing for Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2 University of Washington Clinical Virology Lab.
2 December
Analysis of Plasmids | Second Day Blotting
Subsequently, Southern’s technique was applied to RNA and came to be known as “Northern Blotting.” The technique has also been adapted to proteins. ... The final stage in a Southern Blot is to visualize the probe. If the probe is radioactively labeled one merely performs an autoradiography. GE lab is not equipped to use radioisotope probes, so you will use a biotinylated probe. Biotin is incorporated into the probe via a nick translation reaction in which normal dATP is replaced by biotin-14-dATP.
Lab 1: Safety and Laboratory Techniques
The search in public archives of Ukraine
The system software is supported by the Institute of Software Systems NAS Ukraine and Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University. Updating information on the site changes every day. The system allows for centralized search in public archives of Ukraine. C...
19 February
Mahsa University
Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New.
12 September
OER:The page you were looking for doesn't exist (404)
You may have mistyped the address or the page may have moved. If you are the application owner check the logs for more information.
2 December
Synthesis of Oil of Wintergreen. Chemistry 1060 Laboratory. Analysis. Purity determination.
BTC 221 Introduction to Biotechnology (4 credit, 3 lecture, 2 lab). An introduction to the history, techniques and applications of biotechnology. Topics include cell structure and microscopy; cellular chemistry and physiology; DNA, RNA and protein isolation and purification; blot techniques; PCR; medical and botanical biotech; the biotechnology industry. Laboratory required. Pre-Requisite: BIOL 121 or BIOL 221 or instructor consent.
Ocular Immunology Laboratory
Ocular Immunology Laboratory. Casey Eye Institute – BRB, Room 253 Mail code: L467 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road Portland, OR 97239, USA Lab 503-418-2543; Fax 503-418-2541. Charge Authorization. I authorize the Ocular Immunology Laboratory to charge my credit card for ? Western Blot for anti-retinal antibodies-$495 ? Western Blot for anti-optic nerve antibodies-$330 ? IHC for anti-retinal antibodies-$300.
IT Support Overview | Department of Computer Science
Technical Reports. ... The SSG has a wide range of responsibilities including maintenance of the departmental server infrastructure and computer labs, providing desktop support to faculty, staff, and students in the department, providing support for research computing needs, hosting common services, managing lab access, managing the departmental website, information security, and checkout equipment.
18 September
Account Suspended
This Account has been suspended.
17 April
Organic Laboratory Techniques
Organic Laboratory Techniques. Organic chemistry requires a number of skills and techniques which are different from those you learned in inorganic chemistry. To avoid having to give detailed instructions for these techniques in each lab, I have compiled separate instructions for them. The table below lists which techniques are needed in each experiment; they will also be given in the introduction for each lab so that you can review the information as necessary.
Blackboard Learn
22 May
For Accurate DNA/RNA Gel and Blot Analysis
Other types of staining techniques can also be used in conjunction with GeneTools. Silver stained acrylamide gels used to separate very small SSCP DNA samples have bands that are very close together (Figure 5). However, GeneTools will ensure each band is recognised separately and will be automatically analysed as a single band. ... For example, the software works well with DNA on Southerns as well as RNA on Northern blots.
Differential Stains: Gram Stain and Acid-fast Stain
I. DIFFERENTIAL STAINS A. Gram Stain B. Acid-fast Stain. A. Gram Stain The previous lab introduced simple staining techniques that enable microbiologists to observe the morphological characteristics of bacteria. ... 8. Cover the smear with Safranin for 30 seconds. 9. Wash both the top & the bottom of the slide with water. 10. Blot the slide with bibulous paper. 11. Using the 10X objective lens, focus first on the line and then on the smear. Follow the focusing. procedure in Lab #1.
Southern (1975)first described a method for the transfer of DNA restriction fragments from agarose gels to cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose)membranes and then hybridization of the resulting blot-immobilized DNA to radioactively labeled DNA probes. Since then, the term "Southernblot" has been used to describe any hybridization of DNA on blots to DNA probes, regardless of the type of membrane used. [Northern blot refers to RNA/DNA blot hybridizations, Western blots are protein/antibody hybridizations and other "directional"blotting terms have also been used.]
LLCC Learning Lab
LLCC Learning Lab. 7-13. As you attempt to use the SQ4R technique the first few times, use this checklist to monitor your progress in developing the study strategy. SQ4R Reading Study Technique Progress Checklist. Survey: Chapter Title Learning Objective. Course: Assignment: Pages: Due Date: Finished
Western Blotting Protocol
Western Blotting Protocol. Sibley Lab 4/6/05. JS. Cast, Run, Transfer Gel. ... Lay second piece of saran wrap aside, smooth and flat. 2) In a tube, combine equal parts of ECL solutions (use approx. 1.2 ml total per 6x9 cm blot). Careful not to cross contaminate fluid reagents in bottles. 3) Remove blots from tray. Touch edge of blot to a paper towel to wick away excess wash.
Computer Science and Engineering | Michigan State University
Laboratories and research groups with a diverse range of interests are why MSU CSE is where computer science meets the world. We invite you to explore how we meet the challenges of developing technology to benefit society and advance scientific knowledge.
15 December
Biol 207A: microbiology laboratory
· Demonstrate proficiency and use of the following in the laboratory: streak plate isolation technique; bacterial staining techniques; wet mounts; and proper culture handling. · Visually recognize and explain the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of fungi, protozoa, and bacteria. ... · Explain and perform ELISA test; explain function and usage of a Western Blot test. · Understand and explain causes of mutations in microbes. · Demonstrate the use of chemical and physical control of microbes. This is a sustainability initiative. BIOL 207A: Microbiology Lab General Objectives (Muskegon Community...
LAB TECHNIQUES DNA transformation, mini/maxi prep, cloning. o bacterial growth/ sterile technique, tissue culture. o agarose and SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis o immuno precipitation, western blot. ... o Assisted Senior Scientist in lab research projects o Performed on-going project screening various cell lines for specific proteins, using immunoprecipitation. and western blot o Isolated DNA using mini/maxi prep; analyzed using restriction digest o Regularly passed cells in tissue culture, also performed transfection, extraction, and cell freezing o Observed and supported others in the...
Graduate UB Academic Schedule
North Campus. Prasad, P N. ... Adv Laboratory Techniques. AGA. LAB.
23 October
Sources of Error
Common Sources of Error in Physics Lab Experiments. There is no such thing as "human error"! This vague phrase does not describe the source of error clearly. Careful description of sources of error allows future experimenters to improve on your techniques. ... If a calibration standard is not available, the accuracy of the instrument should be checked by comparing with another instrument that is at least as precise, or by consulting the technical data provided by the manufacturer. When making a measurement with a micrometer, electronic balance, or an electrical meter, always check the zero reading first.
119 350 86 178 368 295 133 193 36 335 552 47 456 448 161 351 310 72 441 221 465 247 487 428 244 275 176 373 89 508 268 434 476 327 543 386 496 115 499 284 60 453 190 269 397 253 414 297 96 491 405 23 389 159 202 451 87 97 43 19 53 226 5 109 533 124 559 475 556 4 320 78 337 152 516 396 88 306 241 439 103 122 338 180 477 13 374 58 127 466 377 114 11 341 462 363 84 255 464 313 383 447 83 362 506 519 25 509 497 217 164 421 238 303 473 128 81 315 515 331 150 143 333 427 381 314 184 198 155 432 9 530 187 125 537 220 270 308 399 551 44 64 484 212 76 517 358 215 504 452 328 112 418 52 227 454 467 243 179 163 361 489 17 173 332 385 59 51 234 74 347 138 54 419 22 267 136 286 420 158 300 429 398 316 18 488 100 545 502 248 50 524 278 343 192 425 62 460 280 345 365 410 24 237 45 401 101 495 156 430 259 111 118 554 394 450 360 440 299 40 471 318 31 26 185 142 262 296 330 548 177 494 349 235 204 503 422 172 323 474 366 536 166 222 85 29 518 404 424 15 189 246 170 431 356 231 446 367 395 7 236 61 251 359 307 354 245 412 402 324 2 437 195 174 144 250 390 14 342 233 483 455 344 527 523 445 258 287 511 283 123 224 322 171 41 274 541 544 298 301 149 326 478 91 273 490 312 461 67 520 135 321 266 1 160 98 546 210 444 27 558 319 334 479 309 391 77 375 459 311 525 209 69 206 257 507 294 449 94 438 534 80 346 325 232 555 372 417 353 547 8 540 197 281 529 468 276 261 162 423 66 42 229 336 146 57 408 481 28 35 240 415 154 388 433 329 107 200 73 470 151 34 120 271 167 75 256 79 92 30 510 183 223 216 285 370 290 265 10 130 400 469 263 498 531 252 500 139 182 339 393 110 526 293 550 463 384 3 228 291 116 242 48 553 535 131 486 542 304 379 230 436 378 514 6 39 501 539 49 16 21 194 387 426 140 70 277 37 199 65 20 492 279 141 522 443 305 137 188 203 95 254 380 181 38 411 148 505 239 482 528 288 355 392 340 348 521 108 409 186 117 260 282 292 457 191 153 407 376 175 147 169 406 289 196 63 56 211 157 106 201 218 205 168 219 371 102 357 33 403 512 104 272 46 472 208 145 113 126 55 82 71 105 90 12 413 132 382 532 364 165 121 249 513 99 207 369 538 485 458 480 32 557 214 549 435 442 493 129 264 352 213 302 416 68 317 134 93 225